How to exercise with thyroid diseases (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism)

Thyroid disorders are becoming more and more common nowadays. Women get sick 5 times more often than men. According to the latest data, every 20 people have some form of thyroid disorder. The reason for such frequency is a stressful lifestyle, unbalanced diet, hormonal changes during pregnancy and menopause, and genetic predisposition. Thyroid diseases are manifested as a disorder in the production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

Hyperthyroidism (excessive secretion of thyroid hormones)
Hypothyroidism (too low secretion of thyroid hormones)

The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of hormones to regulate metabolism, whether it is excessive or insufficient hormone secretion that affects physical activity.
With excessive excretion of thyroid hormones, unwanted consequences occur such as;
Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat)
Increased weight loss
Increased sweating and heat intolerance
The biggest problem and obstacle to playing a sport is tachycardia, which intensifies during physical activity and can grow to the limit when physical activity becomes impossible and must be stopped. If you have increased secretion of thyroid hormones in combination with tachycardia, you must consult your endocrinologist when you start physical activity.

Increased weight loss
The next symptom of great importance is excessive weight loss which can cause weakness, fatigue and a sudden decrease in exercise capacity. During physical activity, you lose calories, which must be compensated afterwards. Sometimes it is difficult to eat well because of various obligations in everyday life, so in those cases you can reach for some of the preparations for recovery from training and building muscle mass. An example of such a preparation is Protein 80 plus.

Hyperthyroidism also causes insomnia, where this lack of sleep also affects your ability to exercise, you simply cannot complete the training and with such a condition the risk of injury increases.

However, exercise is recommended, because the disease often correlates with osteoporosis. To prevent this, people with hyperthyroidism must have a balanced diet, take extra calcium and exercise.

What forms of exercise are initiated in hyperthyroidism
Strength training is much more important than aerobic training because strength training has a better effect on bone and muscle building. This type of exercise will prevent osteoporosis and the loss of muscle mass, which is lost faster due to too fast metabolism. This does not exclude cardio exercises, they can be an integral part of every training, but in a percentage of 20%.

It is very important that 48 hours pass between training sessions so that the body can recover. Which would mean that 3-4 training sessions per week are optimal for people with increased thyroid function.

Trening snage
With hyperthyroidism, restlessness, tremors and anxiety sometimes occur, so the choice of physical activity for such people can be yoga, Tai chi or some kind of meditation, which does not necessarily have to be of Eastern origin. Psychologists often mention fishing as a form of meditation. Choose an activity that will calm your heart rate and feelings of restlessness.
Decreased thyroid hormone secretion will cause:
Gaining weight without additional food intake
Excessive fatigue
Depressive states
Excessive feeling of cold
There is no doubt that exercise is an important part of therapy for normal functioning with some form of hypothyroidism. However, not every exercise is appropriate and you need to know some facts in order to get the maximum benefit from physical activity.
The benefits of physical activity if you have some form of hypothyroidism are as follows;
Release of growth hormone
Increased secretion of the so-called happiness hormone
Increased synthesis of nitric oxide
Improvement of insulin receptor sensitivity
Boosting immunity
Release of growth hormone
Growth hormone (somatotropin) is a hormone that, among other functions, acts on increased utilization of fat for energy, stimulates cell reproduction and regeneration, enhances protein synthesis in cells, stimulates muscle growth and acts to increase calcium absorption in bones and thereby contributes to bone density.
Studies have shown that growth hormone release increases with increasing exercise intensity. Hypothyroidism causes an increase in fat in the body and a lower absorption of calcium, which indicates an increased need for a natural increase in growth hormone.
On this link you can see an example of a 7-day menu for people suffering from hypothyroidism.
Increased secretion of the “hormone of happiness”
It has been proven that endorphin and serotonin are released during exercise, but it seems that its secretion depends a lot from person to person and that some people need a higher and some a lower intensity of exercise. Endorphins have a number of positive effects such as pain relief, stress reduction and mood improvement. Hashimoto's, as one of the forms of hypothyroidism, causes depression precisely because of the lack of happiness hormones.
Increased synthesis of nitric oxide
Nitric oxide is a molecule that cells use to communicate with each other and transmit signals throughout the body. It has an effect on better circulation and thus on the work of the heart and a better transfer of nutrients and oxygen to the cells in the body. This enables better regeneration and more energy.
Nitric oxide plays an important role in cardiovascular, immune and brain function. Some studies show that it has an increased effect with high-intensity exercises, but you have to be careful because they should not last long due to hypothyroidism. It will cause excessive fatigue and then physical activity will be contraindicated.
Improved insulin receptor sensitivity
The consequence of hypothyroidism can also be type 2 diabetes. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells, and when a person becomes resistant to insulin, sugar accumulates in the blood and diabetes occurs. Aerobic training improves insulin sensitivity and increases the number of protein molecules (glucose transporters).
Boosting immunity
With weakened immunity, all the consequences of hypothyroidism worsen. The most natural way to maintain immunity is physical activity.
What forms of exercise are indicated for hypothyroidism
Aerobic exercise is an excellent choice for patients with hypothyroidism, as it prevents diseases of the heart and blood vessels and many depressive states that may occur.Vježbanje na sobnom biciklu

The only caution with physical activity is that you should not overdo it. There is a fine line between physical activity that will be beneficial or harmful for this condition.

Overtraining has a harmful effect on the thyroid because it represents a certain stress for the body, increases inflammation, weakens immunity and consumes the nutritional values necessary for the normal functioning of the thyroid. To make sure that you are doing good for your body, your heart rate should not exceed 70% of your maximum heart rate. You will calculate the maximum heart rate by subtracting your age from 220.

Thyroid diseases are not at all simple conditions because they affect large systems in the body. If you want to ensure a quality life, you have to adapt your lifestyle to the situation. In order to feel good and slow down or stop the negative consequences of thyroid disease, you must adjust your diet and incorporate some form of physical activity into your daily life.

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