What to eat if you have gastritis or an ulcer?

stomach, anatomy, human body

Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. There can be several causes, but it is most often the result of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

It can be acute or chronic, and is manifested by pain in the upper part of the abdomen, changes in the stool and flatulence.

About gastritis
The diagnosis of gastritis is made after a biopsy (taking a sample) of the stomach lining and examination under a microscope.

Acute gastritis is characterized by sudden and short complaints, while chronic problems last for months or even years. Failure to treat gastritis can result in a stomach ulcer (ulcer) and even stomach cancer.

Mechanism of occurrence and causes
Inflammation of the gastric mucosa occurs when the balance between substances that damage and substances that protect the mucosa is disturbed. There are two compounds that are secreted in the stomach: hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the enzyme pepsin. To protect it from the effects of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, the stomach lining is covered with a thick layer of mucus.
In order for the digestive processes to take place smoothly in the stomach, it is important that the cells of the mucus can be quickly renewed, that it is well supplied with blood and that the digestive processes can be carried out. All agents that can damage the protective mucus affect the change in balance, allow pepsin and hydrochloric acid to damage the intestinal mucosa and lead to an inflammatory process.
The most common causes of gastritis are Helicobacter pylori infection, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) such as acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, alcohol, reflux and more serious systemic diseases.
General recommendations for gastritis, peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection
3 main meals and 1 to 2 snacks per day are recommended. Food should be chewed well and consumed lukewarm, not too hot. Avoid snacking between meals and strong spices and fat. It is recommended to consume cooked, solid food.
Probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are useful in preventing symptoms. Yogurt and supplements can be used as a source of probiotics.
White meat, lean red meat and fish and seafood are good sources of protein.
It used to be recommended to drink large amounts of milk. Today we know that because of the protein and calcium in milk, 2 to 3 hours after a meal, hydrochloric acid levels rise. Therefore, milk as an independent meal is not recommended, but it is allowed to use it in the preparation of food (eg oatmeal or semolina with milk).
In addition to avoiding milk, it is also recommended to avoid chocolate and sweets, onions, menthol, coffee, carbonated drinks and spirits, citrus fruit juices, fruit on an empty stomach, some vegetables (tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, beans, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, peppers), calcium supplements and foods that contain it in large quantities, fatty, fried and spicy foods, dried meat products, vinegar.gast

Dietary recommendations in the acute phase of the disease
In the acute phase of the disease, it is recommended to follow a strict diet. Diet includes low-fat vegetable and meat soups, double-baked bread, stale bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, wheat semolina. In any case, light food that will not further irritate the stomach.

In the chronic phase, recommendations can differ depending on the cause of the disease.

Nutrition in peptic ulcer and gastritis
It recommends that most of the calories consumed come from carbohydrates (50-60%), especially from cereals (bread, double-baked bread, rice, corn and wheat semolina) and fruits and vegetables.

Protein intake is recommended to be around 0.8 g per kg of body weight (10-12% of total energy needs). Good sources of protein are lean white meat, fish, cottage cheese, fermented milk products and eggs. The share of energy from fat should be up to 30% of total energy, primarily from olive and other vegetable oils.

Recommendations about which foods to consume and which to avoid can be seen in the table:

prehrana ulkusne bolesti

Nutrition in Helicobacter pylori infection
In 80% of cases, there is a correlation between H. pylori infection and stomach ulcers.

The use of probiotics can help treat an infection with the mentioned bacteria. Most often, lactic acid bacteria are used. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum.

The mechanism of action of probiotics is reduced to inhibiting the growth of H. pylori, reducing the possibility of adhesion to the epithelial cells of the stomach, and reducing or reducing the occurrence of diarrhea when using antibiotics as therapy.

Foods that can relieve ulcers and gastritis symptoms
Olive oil – olive oil has several substances in its composition that can have a beneficial effect on stomach ulcers. Olive oil contains two essential fatty acids: linoleic and linolenic acids. They play an important role in the production of prostaglandins, which have an anti-inflammatory effect. Degradation products of oleuropein and phenolic components show bactericidal activity in vitro against H. pylori. Oleocanthal is also a phenolic substance from the group of aglycones, which creates a burning and burning sensation in the oral cavity after consuming olive oil. In the human body, it has an anti-inflammatory effect, similar to ibuprofen. Olive oil coats the lining of the stomach and thus protects against the effects of stomach acid.
Fish – fish contains highly digestible proteins, and blue fish is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. As such, it is an excellent food choice. We recommend boiled fish and fish soup in combination with olive oil (carp, hake, sea bass).
Legumes – pureed legumes (especially red and white beans) have a neutralizing effect on stomach acid.
Bananas – pectin and phosphatidylcholine from green sweet bananas have a beneficial effect on the renewed stomach lining.
Red cabbage and radish juice – anthocyanins and polyphenolic components present in red cabbage and radish juice have shown a positive effect on digestive problems in vitro and in animal studies.
Cranberry – cranberry juice has a positive effect on H. pylori infection.
Grapefruit – in studies on mice, grapefruit juice has shown a positive effect on the restoration of gastric mucosa.
Medicinal herbs – chamomile, yarrow, lemon balm, plantain and mistletoe teas have a positive effect on ulcers.
Honey – lavender or rosemary honey is recommended to be taken after a meal, dissolved in lukewarm water or tea. Taking it after a meal reduces heartburn and stomach pain.
Mineral water – mineral water with a small amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) (1 g/l) alkalizes the acidic environment of the stomach and has a beneficial effect on heartburn.hranaFood preparation
Foods that are listed to be avoided are not completely prohibited, but to be used in small amounts. Frequent use of these foods will lead to worsening of symptoms. By the method of preparation, we can reduce their negative impact on the stomach and ailments
Boil the fruit gently and consume it in the form of jam, marmalade and compote. Boil and puree the vegetables as well. Consume food cooked in its own juice or in stews and soups. Use mild spices when preparing food.
An example of a weekly menu
Breakfast – toast with apricot jam
Snack – fruit compote
Lunch – chicken breast with boiled rice and grated carrot salad
Dinner – polenta with probiotic yogurt
Breakfast – boiled millet with pieces of dates, honey and almonds
Snack – fruit
Lunch – zucchini soup, boiled fish with potatoes and olive oil
Dinner – probiotic yogurt with oatmeal
Breakfast – hard-boiled egg, toast
Snack – chamomile tea, banana
Lunch – pasta with chicken and grated cheese, salad with olive oil
Dinner – semolina with soy milk and raisins
Breakfast – chia pudding with mixed fruit and soy milk
Snack – almonds
Lunch – tofu with pasta and boiled vegetables
Dinner – toast with a spread of boiled vegetables and a little olive oil
Breakfast – polenta cooked in water and soy milk with raisins
Snack – lemon balm tea
Lunch – hake stew with potatoes and boiled vegetables
Dinner – salad with grated carrots, pumpkin seeds and olive oil and diluted lemon juice
Breakfast – probiotic yogurt
Snack – boiled vegetables with olive oil
Lunch – hearty soup with white meat, root vegetables and pasta
Dinner – rice cooked in soy milk with grated apple and cinnamon
Breakfast – fresh Lenten cheese
Snack – fruit compote
Lunch – rabbit meat baked in foil, green beans and potatoes
Dinner – vegetable soup and toastboloviConclusion
Gastritis is widespread in the population. And despite the various causes, it is always recommended to follow a strict diet along with medication. In an acute condition, there must be no exceptions. In a chronic condition, we can allow ourselves the consumption of foods that are not normally recommended, but in smaller quantities.
A good knowledge of your own body and diet will allow the adjustment to the diet to go as smoothly as possible. It is certainly recommended to deal with stress, which worsens the symptoms.

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